The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe. After the setbacks of 1700, he focused on transforming his state, an absolute monarchy, in a manner similar to Charles XI of Sweden. In 1697, Sweden was a great power until Charles XI died; he left the entire empire in the hands of his 14-year-old son, Charles XII. [44], In 1710, the Swedish army in Poland retreated to Swedish Pomerania, pursued by the coalition. This also severed the contact between Swedish fleet and ground forces and prevented Swedish naval units from supplying it. The Great Northern War was a series of battles fought to contest the Supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern and Central Europe. Charles XII led the Swedish army. [28] Charles wanted not just to defeat the Commonwealth army but to depose Augustus, whom he regarded as especially treasonous, and have him replaced with someone who would be a Swedish ally, though this proved hard to achieve. Alarmed by the Russian preparations Lybecker requested naval units to be brought in as soon as possible in the spring of 1713. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts [51], By the time of Charles XII's death, the anti-Swedish allies became increasingly divided on how to fill the power gap left behind by the defeated and retreating Swedish armies. By 1704, other fortresses were situated on the island of Kotlin and the sand flats to its south. George I of Great Britain and Hanover concluded three alliances in 1715: the Treaty of Berlin with Denmark–Norway, the Treaty of Stettin with Brandenburg-Prussia, and the Treaty of Greifswald with Russia. [53] Sweden's dissatisfaction with the result led to fruitless attempts at recovering the lost territories in the course of the following century, such as the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743), and the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790). Votes: 598 The adventures of a single dad and his weird Alaskan family. During the same period, Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound (1645; 1658). The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. The foreign interventions in Russia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended in 1709 with the destruction of the main Swedish army at the decisive Battle of Poltava (in present-day Ukraine) and Charles' exile in the Ottoman town of Bender. pp. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava and fled to the Ottoman Empire while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna.[33]. These became known as Kronstadt and Kronslot. New animated comedy The Great North follows the Alaskan adventures of the Tobin family. "Poltava: The battle that changed the world. [31] When the main army turned south to recover in Ukraine,[32] the second army with supplies and reinforcements was intercepted and routed at Lesnaya—and so were the supplies and reinforcements of Swedish ally Ivan Mazepa in Baturyn. The negotiations were mediated by French diplomats, who sought to prevent a complete collapse of Sweden's position on the southern Baltic coast and assured that Sweden was to retain Wismar and northern Swedish Pomerania. [49], Hanover-Great Britain and Brandenburg-Prussia thereupon negotiated separate peace treaties with Sweden, the treaties of Stockholm in 1719 and early 1720, which partitioned Sweden's northern German dominions among the parties. Hatton, Ragnhild M. "Charles XII and the Great Northern War." Created by Minty Lewis, Wendy Molyneux, Lizzie Molyneux-Logelin. Beside Peter, the principal Russian commanders were Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev. However, the Swedish state ultimately proved unable to support and maintain its army in a prolonged war. Charles XI had tried to keep the empire out of wars, and concentrated on inner reforms such as reduction and allotment, which had strengthened the monarch's status and the empire's military abilities. In November, the Russian and Swedish armies met at the First Battle of Narva where the Russians suffered a crushing defeat.[21]. http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below)Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! Sweden parried the Danish and Russian attacks at Travendal (August 1700) and Narva (November 1700) respectively, and in a counter-offensive pushed Augustus II's forces through the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to Saxony, dethroning Augustus on the way (September 1706) and forcing him to acknowledge defeat in the Treaty of Altranstädt (October 1706). However, bad roads proved impassable to his heavy siege guns. The Great War is a 26-episode documentary series from 1964 on the First World War. He ended Sweden's exemption from the Sound Dues (transit taxes/tariffs on cargo moved between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea). Pitirim Sorokin "Social and Cultural Dynamics, vol.3", Richard Brzezinski. Russia gained its Baltic territories and became one of the greatest powers in Europe. Hanover gained Swedish Bremen-Verden, while Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated southern Swedish Pomerania. Sweden had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century and ceased to be a major power. Russian cavalry managed to link up with the rest of the army there as well. B Together with rowers from the ships the Russians had 20,000 men at their disposal even without the cavalry. He determinedly pursued his goal of dethroning his adversaries, whom he considered unworthy of their thrones due to broken promises, thereby refusing to take several chances to make peace. Sweden proper was invaded from the west by Denmark–Norway and from the east by Russia, which had occupied Finland by 1714. This is when the enemies of the Swedish empire realized that it was the time to get control of the lands of the Swedish empire. The Russian galley fleet arrived to the area on 29 June but stayed idle until 26–27 July when, under the leadership of Peter, Russian galleys managed to run the blockade making use of calm weather, which immobilized the Swedish battlefleet while losing only one galley of roughly 100. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. However the ensuing Pruth River Campaign resulted in a disaster for the Russians as Peter's army was trapped by an Ottoman army at the Pruth river. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. 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